(1) Romanization is based on standard Korean pronunciation. (2) No symbols except Roman letters are used so far as possible.
2. Summary of the Transcription System
(1) Vowels are transcribed as follows : simple vowels
Simple vowels (ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅔ, ㅚ, ㅟ)
Diphtongs (ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅒ, ㅖ, ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅟ, ㅞ, ㅢ)
Note 1: ㅢ is transcribed as ui, although being pronounced as ㅣ. Note 2: Long vowels are not reflected in transcription.
(2) Consonants are transcribed as follows :
Plosives (stops) (ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ, ㄷ, ㄸ, ㅌ, ㅂ, ㅃ, ㅍ)
Affricates (ㅈ, ㅉ, ㅊ)
Fricatives (ㅅ, ㅆ, ㅎ)
Nasals (ㄴ, ㅁ, ㅇ)
Note 1 : The sounds ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ are transcribed respectively as g, d, and b before a vowel; they are transcribed as k, t, and p when they appear before another consonant or as the last sound of a word. (They are transcribed as pronunciation in [ ].)
The sounds ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ (구미, 영동, 백암, 옥천, 합덕, 호법, 월곶, 벚꽃, 한밭)
Note 2 : ㄹ is transcribed as r before a vowel, and as l before a consonant or at the end of a word: ㄹㄹ is transcribed as ll.
The sounds ㄹ, ㄹㄹ (구리, 설악, 칠곡, 임실, 울릉, 대관령)
3. Special Provisions for Transcription
(1) When Korean sound values change as in the following cases, the results of those changes are transcribed as follows:
The case of assimilation of adjacent consonants
The case of assimilation of adjacent consonants (백마, 신문로, 종로, 왕십리, 별내, 신라)
The case of the epenthetic ㄴ and ㄹ
The case of the epenthetic ㄴ and ㄹ (학여울, 알약)
The case of palatalization
The case of palatalization (해돋이, 같이, 굳히다)
The case when ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ
The case when ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ (좋고, 놓다, 잡혀, 낳지)
However, aspirated sounds are not transcribed in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ, as in the examples below.
The aspirated sounds are not transcribed in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ, as in the examples below. (묵호, 집현전)
Note: Tense (or glottalized) sounds are not transcribed in cases where morphemes are compounded, as in the examples below.
Tense (or glottalized) sounds are not transcribed in cases where morphemes are compounded (압구정, 낙동강, 죽변, 낙성대, 합정, 팔당, 샛별, 울산)
(2) When there is the possibility of confusion in pronunciation, a hyphen ‘-’ may be used.
When there is the possibility of confusion in pronunciation, a hyphen ‘-’ may be used. (중앙, 반구대, 세운, 해운대)
(3) The first letter is capitalized in proper names.
The first letter is capitalized in proper names. (부산, 세종)
(4) Personal names are written by family name first, followed by a space and the given name. As a rule, syllables in given names are not seperated by hyphen, but it is admitted to use a hyphen between syllables. (Transcription in ( ) is permitted.)
Table for personal names (민용하, 송나리)
Min Yongha (Min Yong-ha)
Song Nari (Song Na-ri)
Assimilated sound changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed.
Table for Assimilated sound changes (한복남, 홍빛나)
Han Boknam (Han Bok-nam)
Hong Bitna (Hong Bit-na)
Transcriptions of family names will be established additionally.
(5) Administrative units such as 도, 시, 군, 구, 읍, 면, 리, 동, and 가 are transcribed respectively as do, si, gun, gu, eup, myeon, ri, dong, and ga, and are preceded by a hyphen. Assimilated sound changes before and after the hyphen are not transcribed.
Table for Administrative units (충청북도, 제주도, 의정부시, 양주군, 도봉구, 신창읍, 삼죽면, 인왕리, 당산동, 봉천 1동, 종로 2가, 퇴계로 3가)
Bongcheon 1(il) -dong
Jongno 2(i) -ga
Toegyero 3(sam) -ga
(6) Names of geographic features, cultural properties, and man-made structures may be written without hyphens.
Tablefor Names of geographic features, cultural properties, and man-made structures (남산, 속리산, 금강, 독도, 경복궁, 무량수전, 연화교, 극락전, 안압지, 남한산성, 화랑대, 불국사, 현충사, 독립문, 오죽헌, 촉석루, 종묘, 다보탑)
(7) Proper names such as personal names and those of companies may be written as they have been so far.
(8) When it is necessary to convert Romanized Korean back to Hangeul in special cases such as in academic articles, Romanization is done according to Hangeul spelling and not pronunciation. Each Hangeul letter is Romanized as explained in section 2 except that ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㄹ are always written as g, d, b, l. When ㅇ has no sound value, it is replaced by a hyphen. It may also be used when it is necessary to distinguish between syllables.
When it is necessary to convert Romanized Korean back to Hangeul in special cases such as in academic articles, Romanization is done according to Hangeul spelling and not pronunciation. (집, 짚, 밖, 값, 붓꽃, 먹는, 독립, 문리, 물엿, 굳이, 좋다, 가곡, 조랑말, 없었습니다.)